What about Jordan?

Location: Jordan

Jordan is a Middle Eastern Arab country in Southwest Asia, bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the northeast, Saudi Arabia to the east and south and Israel to the west. Jordan has a coastline of 26 km (16 mi) on the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Jordan consists of arid forest plateau in the east irrigated by oasis and seasonal water streams, with highland area in the west of arable land and Mediterranean evergreen forestry. The Great Rift Valley of the Jordan River separates Jordan, the west bank and Israel. The highest point in the country is Jabal Umm al Dami, it is 1,854 m (6,083 ft) above sea level, its top is also covered with snow, while the lowest is the Dead Sea -420 m (−1,378 ft). Jordan is part of a region considered to be "the cradle of civilization", the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent.
Major cities include the capital Amman in the northwest, Irbid, Jerash and Zarqa, in the north. Madaba, Karak and Aqaba in the south. Much of Jordan is covered by the Arabian Desert.


The most prominent early roots of Jordan, as an independent state, can be traced to the Kingdom of Petra, which was founded by the Nabataeans an ancient Semitic people from Arabia who developed the North Arabic Script that evolved into the Modern Arabic script. During its glory, the Nabataean Kingdom controlled regional trade routes by dominating a large area southwest of the fertile crescent, which included the whole of modern Jordan extending from Syria in the North to the northern Arabian Peninsula in the south. As a result, Petra enjoyed independence, prosperity and wealth for hundreds of years until it was absorbed by the Persian Empire and later the Roman Empire which was still expanding in 100 A.D.

Jordan also witnessed many other smaller ancient kingdoms having sovereignty for centuries, in addition to the Nabataeans. These included the Kingdom of Edom, the Kingdom of Ammon, the Kingdom of Moab, the Kingdom of Judah, and the Hasmonean Kingdom of the Maccabees, which are all mentioned in the Bible and other ancient Near Eastern documents.
During the Greco-Roman period of influence, a number of semi-independent city-states also developed in Jordan under the umbrella of the Decapolis including: Gerasa (Jerash), Philadelphia (Amman), Raphana (Abila), Dion (Capitolias), Gadara (Umm Qays), and Pella (Irbid).
Later, Jordan became part of the Islamic Empire across its different Caliphates stages including Rashidun Empire, Umayyad Empire and Abbasid Empire. After the decline of the Abbasid, Jordan was ruled by several conflicting powers including the Mongols, the Crusaders, the Ayyubids and the Mamluks until it became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1516.